Common Pests


There are mainly two species of concern in India. American cockroach & German cockroach. They are nocturnal (active at night) in habit. They hide in dark places & prefer warm areas. Usually cracks & crevices & corners are ideal for hiding.

They have incomplete metamorphosis in which they undergo 3 life stages egg, nymph & adult. Cockroaches adulterate food or food products with their feces and defensive secretions, physically transport pathogenic organisms, may cause severe allergic responses & epidemic. Cockroach infestations may cause human psychological stress.

1. American Cockroach:

American Cockroach

Scientific Name: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)
This species is usually found in Manholes & drainages. They feed on decaying matters. They are bigger in size compared to german cockroaches. They are 35 to 55 mm long. They are reddish brown in colour. Female cockroach can produce 160 young ones in her lifetime. Female cockroach lays eggshell once in a month. This eggshell is called ootheca. Ootheca contains 16 eggs in it. These eggs hatchout in about 6 – 8 weeks. Adult can live upto 15 – 20 Months.

2. German Cockroach:

German Cockroach

Scientific Name: Blattella germanica (Linnaeus)
This species is Mostly found in Kitchens & food serving area. They mess your home. They are omnivorous. German cockroaches are smaller in size. German cockroaches are very tiny at the nymphal stage. They are 10 to 15 mm in size. They are brown in colour. Female cockroach can produce 150 young ones in her lifetime. Female cockroach lays eggshell once in a month. This eggshell is called ootheca. This ootheca contains 30 – 400 eggs in it. These eggs hatchout in about 2 weeks. Adult can live upto 4 Months.



Ants are social insects that live in colonies that may include thousands of individuals. Ants, along with bees and wasps, are members of the order Hymenoptera & family formicidae and undergo complete metamorphosis passing through four stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult.

Ants have different castes as per division of labour workers, king & queen. Winged reproductive male & female after successful mating shed their wings. And settle new colonies. Worker ants are always in search of food. Ants use chemical signals (pheromones) to find food. Only ants from subfamily formicinae produce defensive chemical formic acid which usually considered as a sting. Most of ants are omnivorous. They feed on Carbohydrates, proteins, sap & nectar etc.



Spiders are the largest group of arachnids. There are many species worldwide. Spiders are easily recognized by the 4 pairs of seven segmented legs and (like all arachnids) have a cephalothorax and abdomen. A visible waist separates the cephalothorax and abdomen of the spider. These predators live almost everywhere – on the ground, under rocks, among grasses, on plants, in underground caves and even on the water. Spiders found in our homes in boxes, clothing or furniture. In windows and near outdoor lighting, web-building spiders often construct webs because insect prey may be attracted at night by the lights and by air. Venom is produced in glands & this venom is used to kill prey.



Scientific name: Cimex lectularius
Bed bugs are wingless insects, roughly oval in shape, 4-5mm long when fully grown, and are fast runners. They are rust brown in colour and change to a deeper red brown following a blood meal. Bed bugs are dorsoventrally flattened and being thin means that they can hide in narrow cracks and crevices, making detection often very difficult.

Adult can live upto 6–12 months. Female lays 2-3 eggs everyday throughout her life. These eggs are creamy white in color are cemented on rough surfaces. These eggs hatch in just 10 days at room temperature. Bugs feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals, including humans. They usually feed at night, often on people asleep in bed. They need blood meal for their development. They have piercing & sucking type of mouth parts. They inject saliva & feed on blood. Skin reactions are commonly associated with bedbugs, which results from saliva injected during feeding. Itching, irritation & sleeplessness affects working efficiency.



Termites are commonly known as white ants. It is also known as deemak. Termite belongs to isoptera order (‘iso’ means equal & ‘ptera’ means wings). There are different termite species observed worldwide but in India we usually find subterranean termites. Subterranean termites form their colony underneath the soil. They are socialized insects. Termites have different castes as per working. King & queen forms reproductive caste. King has only mating function, queen lays eggs & monitors colony.

Working caste includes workers & soldiers. This caste is sterile. Workers has role to gather food for colony & soldiers protects colony. Semi reproductive castes include male & female alates. They are flying swarmers which come out of colony for mating & settle new colony. Termites feed on cellulose based products like wood, paper & cloth. They are silent feeder. They enter your premise through cracks in structure in search of food. Workers form mud tubes & travel through it, as they can’t toleratre room temperature. All caste members report to queen & our aim is to kill termite queen.

Powder Post Beetles:

Powder Post Beetles

There are mainly three families:1) Lyctidae 2) Bostrichidae 3) Anobidae

These are flying insects cause damage to wooden articles. Active infestation Is characterized by the presence of light colored, powdery frass streaming Form exit holes. Powder post beetles 2 to 7 mm long & light brown to almost Black in colour.



House Mouse, Roof Rat, Norway Rat, Field Rats are usually found in India. Rats prefer to stay close to food & water source. They usually burrow in soil. Rats are suspicious by nature. They have neophobia habit. Rats have a good sense of smell & touch. They have poor eyesite. Their teeth grow 0.3 to 0.5 mm per day that is why they have nibbling habit. Rodents are omnivorous.


MosquitoThere are mainly 3 species Anopheles, Culex, Aedes. Mosquitoes are vectors for many diseases. Anopheles cause malaria. Culex cause filariasis & aedes cause dengue. Mosquito breed on stagnant water & rest in dark places. The enter houses at the time of dusk.